The OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) is a non-profit organization dedicated to helping businesses design, buy, and manage secure apps and APIs. The OWASP Top 10 is largely intended to raise awareness. However, since its introduction in 2003, enterprises have used it as a de-facto industry AppSec standard. If you’re going to utilize the OWASP Top 10 as coding or testing standard, keep in mind that it’s only a starting point.
Top most common security vulnerabilities usually found in websites across the globe are as follows:
Broken Access Control
Users cannot behave outside of their specified permissions because of access control. Failures frequently result in unauthorized information disclosure, alteration, or loss of all data. Also, it might lead to the execution of a business function beyond the user’s capabilities. Access control is effective only when there exist trustworthy server-side programs or server-less APIs and the access control validation or metadata cannot be modified by the attacker.
Insecure design refers to a variety of flaws, such as “missing or inadequate control design”. There is a distinction to be made between insecure design and insecure execution. The first is for design problems, whereas the second is for implementation flaws. Implementation flaws can lead to weaknesses in a secure design. Because necessary security measures were never established to fight against specific threats, unsafe designs cannot be rectified by faultless execution. The absence of a business risk profile inherent in the software or system is created. Therefore, failure to decide the level of security design required is one of the reasons that lead to unsafe design.
Inadequately set permissions on cloud services or a lack of sufficient security hardening across any portion of the application stack. Systems are more vulnerable without a determined, repeatable application security setup procedure. A repeatable hardening procedure makes deploying another environment that is suitably locked down. The development, QA, and production environments should all be set up the same way, with separate credentials for each. To reduce the time and effort necessary to set up a new secure environment, this procedure should be automated.
Vulnerable and Outdated Components
Software such as OS, web/application server, database management systems, applications, APIs, runtime environments, and libraries are vulnerable, unsupported, or out of date. This involves utilizing tools like versions, OWASP dependency check, retire.js, and others to constantly inventory the versions of both client-side and server-side components and their dependencies. Continuously check for vulnerabilities in the components using resources such as the CVE (Common Vulnerability and Exposures) and the NVD (National Vulnerability Database). Automate the process by utilizing software composition analysis tools.
Identification and Authentication Failures
To guard against authentication-related threats, users’ identities must be confirmed, authentication must be performed, and sessions must be managed. If the program allows credential stuffing when the attacker has a list of legitimate usernames and passwords, there may be authentication vulnerabilities. Memorized secrets or other contemporary, evidence-based password rules should follow the recommendations in section 5.1.1 of NIST 800-63b.
Software and Data Integrity Failures
Code and infrastructure that do not guard against integrity violations are referred to as software and data integrity failures. Unauthorized access, malicious code, or system compromise can all be risks of an unsecured CI/CD pipeline. Finally, many programs now have auto-update capabilities, which allow updates to be obtained without necessary integrity checks and applied to previously trusted applications. Attackers might theoretically distribute and run their own updates across all systems. Another example is unsecured deserialization, which occurs when objects or data are encoded or serialized into a structure that an attacker may see and manipulate. Use a software supply chain security tool, such as OWASP dependency-check or OWASP CycloneDX, to ensure that components do not contain known vulnerabilities.
Security Logging and Monitoring Failures
This category is designed to assist in the detection, escalation, and response to active security breaches. Breaches cannot be identified without logging and monitoring. It could happen at any moment because of insufficient recording, detection, monitoring, and active reaction. Custom dashboards and alerts are available in commercial and open-source application security frameworks like the OWASP ModSecurity Core Rule Set. Security experts also use the open-source log correlation tool ELK (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana) stack.
Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF)
When a web application fetches a remote resource without verifying the URL provided by the user, an SSRF vulnerability occurs. Even when secured by a firewall, VPN, or another form of network access control list, it permits an attacker to force the program to submit a forged request to an unexpected location. Fetching a URL has become a typical scenario as current online applications provide quite resourceful functionalities to end-users. As a result, SSRF is becoming more prevalent. Because of cloud services and the complexity of architectures, the severity of SSRF is also increasing.
Centex Technologies develops secure web portals for clients. For more information on cybersecurity and secure web applications, contact Centex Technologies at (254) 213 – 4740.